住宅標籤化與社區意識及維護績效路徑分析─ 結構方程模型應用Path Analysis among Housing Labeling, Community Consciousness, and Maintaining Performance – An Application of the Structural Equation Model
政府為幫助弱勢群體推出「國民住宅」，由於大量聚集弱勢同質居民造成貧窮次文化、犯罪問題等，對附近社區造成外部成本。城市中的隔離現象越演越烈，聚集弱勢同質人群的地方甚至被標籤化、汙名化。本文將標籤化視為外衍變數討論它對社區管理維護績效的影響，並藉由社區意識、社區參與兩個中介變數，透過結構方程模型(structural equation model)了解彼此間的因果關係。建商在產品定位時最常採取面積混合策略，即「主力坪數」和「非主力坪數」策略，本文也針對兩者在社區管理維護績效的差異進行分析。操作結果發現，主力坪數住戶社區意識確實較高，且標籤化程度越高，隔離程度相對較高，意味居民背景集中趨於一致，有助社區意識凝聚；居民背景相當，社區活動也較能得到認同，參與狀況隨之熱絡。維護績效也因社區認同程度高，居民能集結起來參與社區事務而提高。
The government has assisted disadvantaged groups that cannot afford housing with "public housing" projects. However, the poverty subculture and increasing crimes around the community where the disadvantaged groups have gathered has led to an increase in the external cost for the city. Residential segregation in the city grows in intensity due to labeling and stigmatization in places where the disadvantaged groups with homogeneous characteristics are gathered. In this paper, housing labeling is imported as an exogenous variable to investigate what can influence the performance of property management in the community. In order to investigate the interrelationships between community consciousness and maintained performance on the basis of the labeling level, two intervening variables including community consciousness and community participation are also introduced into the theoretical framework by the structural equation model. Investors often adopt a strategy of mix in size whenever they make a decision on a project on either the “main floor” or “non-main floor” in product positioning. This paper attempts to investigate the differences in community maintained performance between the “main floor” and “non-main floor” and the demonstrative results show that residents in the “main floor” have a high level in community consciousness. Moreover this paper shows that the higher the level in housing labeling is, the more segregated the community will be. This implies that consistency in families' backgrounds is contributing to coherence in community consciousness, and that community activities can then be accepted by families easily as well as participation proportions consequentially increased. Therefore, the community maintained performance level becomes high due to overall participation in activities with residents in the community.
Key words: the disadvantaged groups, poverty subculture, external cost, labeling, structural equation model